Monthly Archives: January 2016

Education: looking back, the “coding” wave

Illustrating the proverb that schooling means teaching the children to meet the challenges of the grandparents’ generation, President Obama has advertised a new initiative: teach “coding.” The President, who has many admirable qualities, is leaving a shabby heritage as an educational fool. His Department of Education proved, quite remarkably, coarser and meaner than the one butchered by his predecessor.

Teaching “coding” today has even less promise than teaching “auto mechanics” and “new math” in the 1960s or teaching “leather working” and “machine shop” in the 1940s. It is an invitation to become a victim of outsourcing. For most, it would be more helpful to teach the durable skills of plumbing and carpentry. The President invites comparison with Mao’s Great Leap Backward.

Arts of “coding” became highly valued in the 1960s and 1970s, during the second-generation of mainframe computers–with transistor logic and magnetic core memory–and the first generation of minicomputers. Over the next decade, ordinary “coding”–writing lines of programs–soon took a back seat to the higher arts of project management, software organization and reliability testing. That was an age when complex products of mere “coding” began to crash and burn on an epic scale. Now “coding”–within the industry–has become a low-level skill.

During the late 1970s, Brookline was romanced by “coding” visionaries–including disciples of the late Marvin Minsky at MIT–to buy into long-forgotten “Logo” technology. They promised to teach youngsters computational thinking by having them move around “turtles” on a display screen. The Advisory Commmittee discovered that more than a million dollars, in today’s money, would at best instruct a few dozen students. A potential for public embarrassment erased “Logo” from the budget.

Today, even the higher and practical arts of software development provide good jobs for only small numbers of industrial workers. The vast majority who work with computer technology engage with intermediates: software and Internet sites that are dedicated to specific tasks. A tiny population writes the software for Excel or other spreadsheets, but millions use spreadsheet technology to solve or manage business problems. Applied skills, rather than “coding,” remain broadly useful job qualifications.

– Craig Bolon, Brookline, MA, January 31, 2016


Valerie Strauss, All students should learn to code. Right? Not so fast, Washington Post, January 30, 2016

Toluse Olorunnipa, Bloomberg News, Obama: Every child must learn to code, Bangkok Post, January 30, 2016

Tania Branigan, China’s great famine: the true story, Manchester Guardian (UK), January 1, 2013

Robert L. Glass, Software Runaways: Monumental Software Disasters, Prentice Hall, 1997

Diversity Commission: messengers and victims

A regular meeting of the Diversity, Inclusion and Community Relations Commission on Wednesday, January 27, started at 6:30 pm in the Denny Room at the Brookline Health Center. The agenda included review of the commission’s recent statement on institutional racism in the Brookline work force, which was read by Alex Coleman, chair of the commission, at a public hearing held by the Board of Selectmen on January 5.

Town government, according to the commission statement, has a “culture of institutional racism” that “the Board of Selectmen…allowed.” The statement read by Dr. Coleman called on the Board of Selectmen, “as the elected leaders of the town, to exercise your responsibilities and duties, as commissioners of the Police and Fire Departments…to stamp out this culture.”

Attacking messengers: The commission’s January 27 meeting began with a statement from Bernard Greene, who is the delegate from the Board of Selectmen. Mr. Greene said his board was “actively taking steps to determine the facts” about complaints of racial mistreatment. However, he claimed the commission’s statement “has not been helpful to efforts to deal with these problems.”

Mr. Greene objected to what he called a “pathetic process that resulted in the statement.” He said he was “here to request that this commission rescind that statement and disavow it to the board and to the public.” After it does that, he said, “maybe the board can then begin to fulfill a useful role in addressing those problems.” Mr. Greene then left, saying he had “another meeting.”

Commission members had previously received a message from Joslin Murphy, the town counsel, sent by e-mail to Dr. Coleman on January 15. Ms. Murphy claimed the statement was “causing damage to the Town’s reputation as a community and employer.” She demanded “that the Commission take immediate steps to retract this statement and publicly acknowledge that it was not factually supported at the time it was made.”

Another objection to the commission’s statement circulated at the meeting, written by Neil Gordon, a Brookline constable and a Precinct 1 town meeting member. In it, Mr. Gordon said he could “find no meaningful substance behind the statement.” He asked “where the commission reviewed” employment practices of the Board of Selectmen and whether “the process by which the Board of Selectmen appointed Joslin Murphy as Town Counsel [was] tainted by a ‘culture of institutional racism’ that was allowed by that board.”

Blaming victims: Dr. Coleman described contacts with Ms. Murphy, recalling that “she was saying we had no facts supporting” the statement. However, it was delivered in the context of a two-hour public hearing including several personal descriptions of alleged racial mistreatment by Brookline employees. He recounted telling Ms. Murphy, “We look forward to working collaboratively.”

Ms. Murphy is one of several defendants in a federal civil rights lawsuit brought on behalf of a group of plaintiffs that now includes eight Brookline employees and residents. According to allegations made in this lawsuit, “…the Town of Brookline appointed a white woman with multiple relationships within the workforce, Defendant Joslin Murphy, as the town’s chief legal counsel” in 2014. [Amended complaint, paragraph 132, p. 42]

Plaintiffs in the lawsuit allege blaming victims as a theme of racial mistreatment, writing, for example, that Brookline “allowed false rumors to spread that [a plaintiff's] complaint was meritless; it encouraged [other employees] to shun and ostracize him.” [Amended complaint, paragraph 8, p. 5] In another instance, an alleged breach of confidence identified a plaintiff “as the one who had protested the use of racist language and caused [the plaintiff] to be ostracized within the department.” [Amended complaint, paragraph 19, p. 9]

Responses: With 11 of 12 members participating, the commission did not seem inclined to a change of mind about its statement. Tony Naro stated, “The way Town Counsel has addressed the Commission through [Dr. Coleman] is disrespectful…Our statement was an opinion…[Others] should not threaten us, bully us and demand that we retract the statement.” Dr. Coleman commented, “We are not a fact-finding group.” Malcolm Cawthorne said, “We stand by our statement.”

Several commission members suggested ways that the commission might describe the background of its statement, but only Sandy Batchelder proposed to reopen and possibly revise the statement. No one proposed to rescind or retract it. Kelly Race said, “We should take a vote on whether we stand by our statement…It was the opinion of the commission.”

Speaking from the audience, Frank Farlow, a Precinct 4 town meeting member and co-chair of Brookline PAX, agreed, saying, “It was the unanimous opinion of a large commission after extended discussion.” Commission members decided not to compose an immediate reply to criticisms but instead to resume reviews at their next regular meeting in February.

– Beacon staff, Brookline, MA, January 29, 2016


Statement to the Board of Selectmen on institutional racism in the Brookline work force, Commission for Diversity, Inclusion and Community Relations, Town of Brookline, MA, January 4, 2016

Letter to commission chair Alex Coleman, from Joslin Murphy, Brookline town counsel, January 15, 2016

Amended complaint and jury demand, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, filed January 26, 2016

Board of Selectmen: complaints of racial mistreatment, Brookline Beacon, January 27, 2016

Board of Selectmen: hearing airs racial tensions, Brookline Beacon, January 6, 2016

Civil rights lawsuit: town and individuals accused, Brookline Beacon, December 14, 2015

Board of Selectmen: complaints of racial mistreatment

A regular meeting of the Board of Selectmen on Tuesday, January 26, started at 7:00 pm in the sixth-floor meeting room at Town Hall. Neil Wishinsky, the board’s chair, read a statement about complaints of racial mistreatment lodged by staff of the fire and police departments. While expressing concerns over the issues, Mr. Wishinsky’s statement did not mention new efforts to address them.

Civil rights lawsuit: In a document filed at the federal court in Boston on the day of the meeting, the civil rights lawsuit brought on behalf of firefighter Gerald Alston was joined by police officers Prentice Pilot and Estifanos Zerai-Misgun. Five other Brookline workers and residents–all alleging racial mistreatment–also joined: Cruz Sanabria, Juana Baez, Rogelio Rodas, Demetrius Oviedo and Deon Fincher.

The Brookline police officers rejected an offer of mediation made by Daniel O’Leary, Brookline’s chief of police, writing that “Racism cannot be mediated.” According to the officers, “The Chief and the Selectmen made promises regarding ‘zero tolerance’ for racism on the force, but we have experienced two separate occasions already where we reported these incidents and the perpetrators remain on the job, without consequence.”

The amended complaint in the lawsuit now names several Brookline staff alleged to have engaged in racial mistreatment, although it does not add them to the list of defendants. A central issue raised in the lawsuit remains an alleged “racist and unconstitutional policy” claimed to be “longstanding” in town government. Brookline’s Diversity, Inclusion and Community Relations Commission testified to the board on January 5 that the town government has “a culture of institutional racism” which “the Board of Selectmen…allowed.”

Some allegations can grow more chilling as one understands them better. For example, “Other police officers referred to [Mr. Zerai-Misgun] repeatedly as an FI, the police designation for a suspicious individual….” [Amended complaint, paragraph 18, p. 8] The abbreviation means a target of “field interrogation”–suggesting that an African-American may be targeted by race.

Complaints of racial mistreatment: An African-American member of the Diversity, Inclusion and Community Relations Commission has described, at a public meeting of the commission on December 16, how he was personally targeted. The commission meeting was attended by Bernard Greene, a member of the Board of Selectmen who is African-American. The amended complaint also recounts other incidents involving Mr. Greene.

“Following the meeting, Selectman Bernard Greene met with the Police Chief and other town officials to formulate a plan to discredit the officers’ allegations. Selectman Greene later executed that plan by sending a confidential e-mail to selected town residents…Selectman Greene intended for his e-mail to be confidentially distributed among a select group of politically active residents as part of a broader whispering campaign to discredit and smear the officers and their supporters.” [Amended complaint, paragraph 31, p. 13, and paragraph 38, p. 15]

These allegations sound at least as serious as ones directed at Stanley Spiegel, a Precinct 2 town meeting member who was named as a defendant in the lawsuit. However, Mr. Greene has not been named as a defendant. The Brookline Department of Public Works and Office of Human Resources are implicated in other incidents described in the amended complaint.

“Deon Fincher was hired by the Town of Brookline as a laborer in 2009…Mr. Fincher was the only Black worker in [the] sanitation division…All the teams alternated between driving and collecting trash, except for one…On Mr. Fincher’s team, Mr. Fincher threw trash full time…In 2010, he injured his shoulder and required an operation…Mr. Fincher complained that the repetitive throwing motion was damaging his shoulder…The Town’s Human Resources director refused to assign Mr. Fincher another job…The head of the division…was hostile to Mr. Fincher when he attempted to assert his contractual rights. Mr. Johnson yelled at Mr. Fincher for requesting a union representative. White employees did not receive the same hostility.” [Amended complaint, paragraphs 87-96, pp. 29-31]

Sandra DeBow-Huang, director of the Office of Human Resources, has been named as a defendant in the civil rights lawsuit. Kevin Johnson, the highway, sanitation and fleet maintenance director in the Department of Public Works, has not been named as a defendant.

– Beacon staff, Brookline, MA, January 27, 2016


Prentice Pilot and Estifanos Zerai-Misgun, Racism cannot be mediated, statement to Brookline Board of Selectmen, January 26, 2016

Amended complaint and jury demand, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, filed January 26, 2016

Memorandum in support of partial motion to dismiss, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, filed January 12, 2016

Complaint and jury demand, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, filed December 1, 2015

Board of Selectmen: hearing airs racial tensions, Brookline Beacon, January 6, 2016

Civil rights lawsuit: town and individuals accused, Brookline Beacon, December 14, 2015

Federal civil rights lawsuit: motions to dismiss

Lawyers representing the Town of Brookline and the Board of Selectmen have answered the federal civil rights lawsuit filed on behalf of firefighter Gerald Alston with a motion to dismiss charges. A separate motion to dismiss has been filed on behalf of some defendants sued as individuals: Neil Wishinsky, board chair, Nancy Daly, board member, Ken Goldstein, Betsy DeWitt and Jesse Mermell, former board members, Joslin Murphy, town counsel, and Sandra DeBow, human resources director.

Representing the Town of Brookline, the Board of Selectmen and those sued in official capacities are Patricia Correa, the first assistant town counsel, and Douglas I. Louison of Louison, Costello, Condon & Pfaff in Boston. Representing those moving to dismiss charges against them as individuals are Mr. Louison and Joseph A. Padolsky of the same firm. As of January 15, no representation and no response had been filed for defendants Stanley Spiegel, a Precinct 2 town meeting member, and Local 950, International Association of Firefighters.

Filed with the two motions to dismiss on behalf of defendants was an 82-page memorandum of assertions and arguments. It attacks Brooks Ames, the lawyer who filed the case for Mr. Alston, questioning whether he is eligible to represent Mr. Alston and indicating that the case relates to “a long-standing media campaign that has been waged against the Town and its officials” and it seeks to “revive long-standing policy debates.” [Memorandum, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, Document 11, Sections II.C and D, pp. 22 and 25]

Brooks Ames controversy: The defendants’ memorandum suggests Brooks Ames may not be eligible to represent Gerald Alston, citing Chapter 268A of Massachusetts General Laws. That might be so if Mr. Ames were to qualify as a former “municipal employee” who “participated” in some “particular matter” involving Mr. Alston.

An exhibit included with the defendants’ memorandum shows that while Mr. Ames was a member of the former Human Relations–Youth Resources Commission he chaired a meeting in September, 2013. The meeting heard a report about a racial discrimination lawsuit that had been filed on behalf of Mr. Alston in Norfolk Superior Court–not by Mr. Ames. [Memorandum, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, Document 11, Exhibit 11, pp. 3-6]

According to meeting minutes, a discussion developed around Mr. Alston’s situation that also considered racial incidents involving other town employees. Actions taken at the meeting were to invite the chiefs of the police and fire departments to a future meeting and to send a letter to the Board of Selectmen seeking information about Mr. Alston’s complaint.

In Section 18, Chapter 268A of Massachusetts General Laws makes it illegal for a former “municipal employee” to act “as agent or attorney for or receive compensation” in connection with a “particular matter” in which “the city or town is a party or has a direct and substantial interest and in which he participated as a municipal employee.” In Section 1(g), Chapter 268A defines “municipal employee” broadly: “a person performing services for or holding an office, position, employment or membership in a municipal agency, whether by election, appointment, contract of hire or engagement, whether serving with or without compensation, on a full, regular, part-time, intermittent or consultant basis.”

However, neither the motions to dismiss Alston v. Brookline nor the supporting materials appear to show whether Mr. Ames “participated” in investigating Mr. Alston’s complaint on behalf of the Town of Brookline. Events from the period suggest that the Board of Selectmen did not support his involvement. Lack of participation in such matters was instead a factor alluded to by Mr. Ames when resigning from the former commission in 2014.

Claims of wrongdoing: The motions to dismiss respond to only parts of the original complaint in Alston v. Brookline, highlighting relief sought under federal law in 42 USC 1981, originally from the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and most recently the Civil Rights Act of 1991. However, Mr. Alston’s complaint also cites equal protection and due process violations under the Fourteenth Amendment, free speech violations under the First Amendment and issues under 42 USC 1983, originally from the Civil Rights Act of 1871, and under 42 USC 1988, from the Civil Rights Attorney’s Fees Award Act of 1976. [Complaint, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, paragraph 29]

The memorandum in support of motions to dismiss objects to only some of the allegations of unlawful harm in the original complaint filed for Alston v. Brookline. It says, for example, “allegations regarding the promotions of [Mr. Alston's supervisor, accused of a racial insult]…did not amount to constitutional misconduct against [Mr. Alston] and…do not state a claim.” [Memorandum, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, Document 11, Section II.C, p. 23]

The original complaint filed for Alston v. Brookline said, in part, that the Board of Selectmen “did not investigate [the supervisor's] intimidating and retaliatory conduct towards Mr. Alston after learning of Mr. Alston’s complaint [about the racial insult]…it “promoted [the supervisor]…just months after he [made the insult].” [Complaint, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, paragraphs 6 and 7]

A related claim filed for Alston v. Brookline said, in part, “The Town Defendants violated the Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of equal protection and freedom from racial discrimination by…engaging in…favoritism towards white…employees…The…unconstitutional…practice…caused Mr. Alston to suffer damages compensable pursuant to 42 USC 1981 and 1983.” [Complaint, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, paragraphs 149 and 151]

The memorandum in support of the motions to dismiss also objects to relitigating previous rulings. [Memorandum, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, Document 11, Section II.D, p. 24] However, the memorandum does not include evidence of relitigation. For example, the action that Mr. Alston filed in 2012 with the state Commission Against Discrimination complained about behavior within the Fire Department and the Human Resources Office. It did not allege wider discrimination tolerated or practiced by the Board of Selectmen. [Memorandum, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, Document 11, Exhibit 5, p. 2]

Although the motions to dismiss might be partly successful, they do not appear to resolve key elements of the lawsuit, including alleged involvement in discrimination by current and former members of the Board of Selectmen.

– Beacon staff, Brookline, MA, January 15, 2016


Memorandum in support of partial motion to dismiss, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, filed January 12, 2016

Complaint and jury demand, Alston v. Brookline, Federal case 1:15-cv-13987, filed December 1, 2015

Civil rights lawsuit: town and individuals accused, Brookline Beacon, December 14, 2015

Human Relations: harassment complaints and resignations, Brookline Beacon, June 12, 2014

Greenhouse gases: passing the buck

For several years, the General Court and the Patrick administration made an intramural sport out of passing the buck over greenhouse-gas emission limits: extremely ambitious goals set for dates long after terms of the legislators, bureaucrats and governor had expired. The fit is finally hitting the Shan over one episode, the so-called Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA) of 2008.

Our Children’s Trust, an Oregon-based nonprofit, organized a challenge on behalf of four Massachusetts high-school students, claiming that the state Department of Environmental Protection had failed to satisfy a GWSA requirement. In August, 2014, lawyers from the Boston firm of Sugarman, Rogers, Barshak & Cohen filed suit, joined by the Conservation Law Foundation in Boston and by the Energy Consumers Alliance of New England. [Kane v. Massachusetts]

Bad law makes hard cases: The terms of state legislation have made the Kane case an uphill struggle. The GWSA provision at issue requires: “The [Department of Environmental Protection] shall promulgate regulations establishing a desired level of declining annual aggregate emission limits for sources or categories of sources that emit greenhouse gas emissions [sic].” [Massachusetts General Laws C. 21N, S. 3(d), as enacted by Acts and Resolves of 2008, C. 298, S. 6]

What plaintiffs in the Kane case clearly want is some form of overall state limit on Massachusetts greenhouse gas emissions, declining year-by-year. For better or worse, that was not required by GWSA. Instead, the state was directed to establish declining goals for some sources, and it did more than that. Its defense to the lawsuit cited three state regulations with declining, mandatory limits, adopted after GWSA.

In 2012, the state updated regulations for the Ultra-low-emission Vehicle Program. [310 CMR 7.40(2)(a)] In 2013, it amended regulations for the CO2 Budget Trading Program. [310 CMR 7.70(5)] In 2014, it issued new regulations for sulfur hexafluoride emissions from gas-insulated switchgear. [310 CMR 7.72] Each of those had declining, mandatory limits–not just goals–for years from 2015 through 2020.

Judge Robert Gordon of Suffolk Superior Court made swift work of the original case. He wrote, “The regulatory initiatives implemented by DEP may or may not prove effective…it will not be because the Department flouted the statutory directives…It is not…for this Court to rewrite the statute that the plaintiffs wish the General Court had enacted…the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection has substantially satisfied the requirements of Mass. G.L. C. 20N, S. 3(d).”

Newspapers make mischief: In their typical, hackneyed “he said…she said” style, newspapers have spun a straightforward decision into a moral crisis. Writing in the Boston Globe, David Abel quoted lawyers who argued for the plaintiffs in the Kane case, saying, “…the state has failed to take sufficient action to comply with the state’s 2008 Global Warming Solutions Act.”

The Supreme Judicial Court allowed the case an expedited appeal, soliciting briefs from “friends of the court” and hearing arguments on Friday, January 8. However, even an activist court would need to perform gymnastics to find that the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection did less than GWSA asked. So far, newspapers and lawyers let off the hook the legislators who drafted a poorly planned and badly written law.

– Craig Bolon, Brookline, MA, January 11, 2016


An act establishing the Global Warming Solutions Act, Massachusetts Acts and Resolves of 2008, Chapter 298

Complaint, Kane, et al. v. Massachusetts DEP, Suffolk Superior Court Case No. 14-02551, filed August 11, 2014

Judgment, Kane, et al. v. Massachusetts DEP, Suffolk Superior Court Case No. 14-02551, issued March 23, 2015

Reducing sulfur hexafluoride emissions from gas-insulated switchgear, Massachusetts regulation 310 CMR 7.72, April 25, 2014

CO2 budget trading program, CO2 allowance allocations, Massachusetts regulation 310 CMR 7.70(5), revised December 6, 2013

Ultra-low-emission vehicle program, Emissions requirements and prohibitions, Massachusetts regulation 310 CMR 7.40(2)(a), most recently revised January 1, 2016

David Abel, Suit faults Massachusetts record in cutting emissions, Boston Globe, January 3, 2016

Board of Selectmen: hearing airs racial tensions

A regular meeting of the Board of Selectmen on Tuesday, January 5, started at 7:05 pm in the sixth-floor meeting room at Town Hall. While North Korea was testing its first thermonuclear bomb, the board conducted a public hearing about what it called “diversity issues involving the town”–also an explosive catastrophe, at least on a local scale.

A standing-room-only audience of around 200 gathered in a hearing room with only about 100 seats. For many Brookline residents it was an evening of despair–airing incident after incident of racial discrimination, targeting and harassment–lasting more than two hours.

Commission statement: At its meeting the previous evening, the Diversity, Inclusion and Community Relations Commission had reviewed testimony and reports it received about racial issues affecting the Brookline work force. Alex Coleman, chair of the commission, read a statement to the Board of Selectmen that the commission had authorized.

Dr. Coleman said the commission, which began in January, 2015, “spent the last year trying to move forward.” Hopes for progress had been dashed at a December 16 meeting, when two Brookline police officers testified in open session that their department was afflicted with racial tensions, from which they personally suffered. Town government, according to the commission statement, has “a culture of institutional racism” that “the Board of Selectmen…allowed.”

The statement read by Dr. Coleman called on the Board of Selectmen, “as the elected leaders of the town, to exercise your responsibilities and duties, as commissioners of the Police and Fire Departments…to stamp out this culture. This is a matter of extreme urgency, which the Board of Selectmen needs to address with actions, not words, now.” Members of the board listened but did not comment.

Police testimony: Prentice Pilot, one of the two African-American police officers who spoke out on December 16, told the Board of Selectmen he had worked on the force for 17 years. He recalled another minority police officer who “went to the chief about racial incidents” a year ago, apparently joining Officers Pilot and Zerai-Misgun then, but got no action. In response to his recent complaint about a racial insult, he said, “the chief had a preliminary investigation” but called it “inconclusive.”

After his recent testimony to the Diversity, Inclusion and Community Relations Commission, Officer Pilot said, the commission “asked Selectman Greene to get more of the story…I haven’t heard anything from him.” Mr. Greene, the first African-American ever elected to the Board of Selectmen, became the board’s delegate to the commission and was present when Mr. Pilot testified on December 16.

Officer Pilot said a recent report on the racial climate in the Police and Fire Departments, sent to commission members, offers “insights from the Police Department leadership: no major incidents” in the department. “The chief,” he said, “had a free diversity report when the three of us went to him in December of 2014.” Applause from the audience lasted most of a minute.

Estifanos Zerai-Misgun, the other African-American police officer who spoke out on December 16, described “the chief’s assurance” of respect in the department. “He gave me his assurance a year ago,” said Officer Zerai-Misgun. “Nothing has changed…All you say is that you’re waiting…Nobody has contacted me.” He told the Board of Selectmen, “It is not a safe environment there. The chief failed me last year…Now you’re failing me today.”

Lee Smith, an African-American former police officer in Brookline, told the board about experiences starting in April, 1998. He also left a much longer version of his remarks in writing. As a beginning Brookline officer, he said, after he wrote a parking ticket a superior officer “chewed me up,” telling Mr. Smith, “That ticket belongs to a friend of mine.” Mr. Smith explained that there was a covert system of marking tickets to indicate they were supposed to be discarded and ignored, which he had not followed.

At a “diversity meeting” held more than 15 years ago, Mr. Smith said, fellow officers ridiculed the training, “complaining, ‘why do we have to be here for this?’” Written materials were distributed at the training, according to Mr. Smith. “I saw guys ripping it up, tossing it in the trash.”

Harassment complaints: Leslie Epps, who operates Finesse Florist on Washington St., told about experiences as an African-American living in Brookline and running a retail business. “I’ve experienced such racism,” said Ms. Epps. “I have filed complaints. These complaints have disappeared. There has been intimidation: ticketing my vehicle falsely, targeting my shop.”

Ms. Epps described herself as “keynote speaker” at the most recent Martin Luther King Day event in Brookline. Now, she said, “I have stress disorder…at the hands of Brookline police.” Not one to give up. Ms. Epps told the Board of Selectmen, “This is my country. I will not be moved…I am looking for restorative justice.”

Cruz Sanabria of Rice Street, a Marine veteran and a public school teacher in Boston, who was a member of the former Human Relations Commission, described harassment from neighbors and antagonism from Brookline police officers. In one incident, he said, he was falsely cited for a crime.

According to Mr. Sanabria, he was charged with “assault with a dangerous weapon…It was dismissed.” Mr. Sanabria told the Board of Selectmen, “The horror I went through is worse than anything else I have had in my life…You put me in a position that I shouldn’t have been in. Why? Because I’m Puerto Rican.”

Reactions: Brookline residents who are not members of a minority had strong reactions. Bob Miller of Copley St., a Precinct 8 town meeting member and a teacher at Heath School, told the Board of Selectmen, “I’ve heard talk about racism in Brookline,” calling it “an issue that can destroy the town that I love.” He urged “the strongest possible actions to let it be known that this will not be tolerated.”

Pat Bartels of Wolcott Rd. said her family “moved to Brookline because we believed it was going to be a caring and liberal community.” Her two children, she said, are graduates of Brookline High School. “Their friends were from Bulgaria, Cape Verde, Korea…from all over the world…Those are the values they shared.”

Shifra-Lilith Freewoman of Longwood Ave. was less forgiving. In Leslie Epps’s shop, she said, “She treated me like gold…It breaks my heart. Everybody black that I know has encounters with police in this town.” The problem, according to Ms. Freewoman, has been that “words don’t translate into clear action.” She told the Board of Selectmen, “If this board can’t do it, then let’s elect another board.”

Years ago: Andrew Leong of Marion Terrace described his experiences inside the Brookline Police Department many years ago. He is a professor of law at the University of Massachusetts in Boston. “We are sick and tired of more studies, more training,” said Prof. Leong. “I did that training 27 years ago.”

At the time, he said, “a black officer told me, ‘I’m so glad you came and spoke…All those racist things [are] happening to me on this police force.’” Referring to Officers Pilot and Zerai-Misgun, Prof. Leong said, “They are risking their jobs. What do we want? We want them to be on paid administrative leave.” Applause from the audience again lasted for most of a minute.

– Beacon staff, Brookline, MA, January 6, 2016


James Pearson and Tony Munroe, North Korea says successfully conducts first H-bomb test, Reuters (UK), January 6, 2016

Statement to the Board of Selectmen on institutional racism in the Brookline work force, Commission for Diversity, Inclusion and Community Relations, Town of Brookline, MA, January 4, 2016

Lee Smith, Statement at Brookline Board of Selectmen hearing, January 5, 2016

Diversity Commission: police and fire department report, Brookline Beacon, December 20, 2015